Wednesday, September 20, 2006

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam


Dr. A.P.J. ABDUL KALAM
PRESIDENT OF INDIA Born on 15th October 1931 at Rameswaram in Tamil Nadu, Dr. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam, specialized in Aeronautical Engineering from Madras Institute of Technology. Dr. Kalam made significant contribution as Project Director to develop India's first indigenous Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-III) which successfully injected the Rohini satellite in the near earth orbit in July 1980 and made India an exclusive member of Space Club. He was responsible for the evolution of ISRO's launch vehicle programme, particularly the PSLV configuration. After working for two decades in ISRO and mastering launch vehicle technologies, Dr. Kalam took up the responsibility of developing Indigenous Guided Missiles at Defence Research and Development Organisation as the Chief Executive of Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP). He was responsible for the development and operationalisation of AGNI and PRITHVI Missiles and for building indigenous capability in critical technologies through networking of multiple institutions. He was the Scientific Adviser to Defence Minister and Secretary, Department of Defence Research & Development from July 1992 to December 1999. During this period he led to the weaponisation of strategic missile systems and the Pokhran-II nuclear tests in collaboration with Department of Atomic Energy, which made India a nuclear weapon State. He also gave thrust to self-reliance in defence systems by progressing multiple development tasks and mission projects such as Light Combat Aircraft.
As Chairman of Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC) and as an eminent scientist, he led the country with the help of 500 experts to arrive at Technology Vision 2020 giving a road map for transforming India from the present developing status to a developed nation. Dr. Kalam has served as the Principal Scientific Advisor to the Government of India, in the rank of Cabinet Minister, from November 1999 to November 2001 and was responsible for evolving policies, strategies and missions for many development applications. Dr. Kalam was also the Chairman, Ex-officio, of the Scientific Advisory Committee to the Cabinet (SAC-C) and piloted India Millennium Mission 2020.
Dr. Kalam took up academic pursuit as Professor, Technology & Societal Transformation at Anna University, Chennai from November 2001 and was involved in teaching and research tasks. Above all he took up a mission to ignite the young minds for national development by meeting high school students across the country.
In his literary pursuit four of Dr. Kalam's books - "Wings of Fire", "India 2020 - A Vision for the New Millennium", "My journey" and "Ignited Minds - Unleashing the power within India" have become household names in India and among the Indian nationals abroad. These books have been translated in many Indian languages.
Dr. Kalam is one of the most distinguished scientists of India with the unique honour of receiving honorary doctorates from 30 universities and institutions. He has been awarded the coveted civilian awards - Padma Bhushan (1981) and Padma Vibhushan (1990) and the highest civilian award Bharat Ratna (1997). He is a recipient of several other awards and Fellow of many professional institutions.
Dr. Kalam became the 11th President of India on 25th July 2002. His focus is on transforming India into a developed nation by 2020.











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Viswanathan Anand


VISWANATHAN ANAND
Born : 1969 Viswanathan Anand is the first Asian to win the World Chess Championship title. He won the title on 24th December 2000, defeating Spain's Alexei Shirovyoungest at Teheran.
Born in Chennai in December 1969, he started playing chess at the age of 6. He learnt chess from his mother Susheela. His parents encouraged him and used to take him to the Tal Chess club. Young Anand had an exceptional memory power and an ability to grasp things fast which made him excel in Chess. Anand got his B.Com degree from Loyola College.
He has won many titles even from a young age. He was the youngest Asian to win the International Master's Title at the age of fifteen. At sixteen he became the National Champion; At eighteen India's First Grandmaster. In 1987, he became the first Asian to win the World Junior Chess Championship. In 1992, he won the formidable Reggio Emilia Tournament. He was the runner up to Kasparov in World Championship final in 1995. He beat Kasparov in the rapid chess tournament in September 96 and Karpov in June 97 in Hamburg Rapid Chess. Anand outplayed the most popular chess software programme, Fritz in July, 99.
Anand has also received many awards; Arjuna Award for Outstanding Indian Sportsman in 1985, Padmashree, National Citizens Award and Soviet Land Nehru Award in 1987, Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award, Chess Oscar and so on.
Anand's wife Aruna supports him in his preparations for the tournaments. This genius, although he has achieved so much still remains simple in character. He wrote a book 'My Best Games of Chess' for which he got the British Chess Federation 'Book of the Year' Award in 1998.

Lata Mangeshkar


Lata Mangeshkar Born September 28, 1929 in Indore, Lata Mangeshkar has been active in all walks of Indian popular and light classical music having sung film songs, ghazals, bhajans and pop. She is the supreme voice of popular Indian music, an Indian Institution. Until the 1991 edition, when her entry disappeared, the Guinness Book of Records listed her as the most recorded artist in the world with not less than 30,000 solo, duet and chorus-backed songs recorded in 20 Indian languages between 1948 and 1987. Today the number might have reached 40,000!!!
Dinanath Mangeshkar, her father, owned a theatrical company and was a reputed classical singer, a disciple of the Gwalior school. He gave her singing lessons from around the age of five. She also studied with Aman Ali Khan Sahib and later Amanat Khan. Her God-given musical gifts meant that she could master the vocal exercises effortlessly on first pass and from early on she was recognized as being highly gifted musically.
However when her father died in 1942, the onus of being the breadwinner of the family fell on Lata. Between 1942 and 1948 she acted in as many as 8 films in Hindi and Marathi to take care of the family's economic problems. She also made her debut as a playback singer in the Marathi film Kiti Hasaal (1942) but the song was edited out!
The first Hindi film in which she gave playback was Aap ke Sewa Main (1947) but her singing went unnoticed. When Lata entered the Film Industry, heavier Punjabi voices like Noorjehan, Shamshad Begum and Zohrabai Ambalewali ruled the Industry. Ironically Lata was even rejected for Shaheed (1948) by producer S. Mukherjee who complained that her voice was too thin! However Ghulam Haider unable to use her in Shaheed gave Lata her breakthrough song with Dil Mera Toda from Majboor (1948).
1949 saw the release of four films. Barsaat, Andaaz (1949) , Dulari and Mahal. The songs of all four films were runaway hits particularly Aaega Aanewaalaa from the last mentioned. By 1950 the Lata wave had changed the Industry. Her high-pitched singing rendered obsolete the heavy basy nasal voices of the day. Only Geeta Dutt and to a certain extent Shamshad Begum survived the Lata onslaught. Asha Bhosle too came up in the late 1950s and the two sisters were the queens of Indian playback singing right through to the 90s.
Lata's initial style of singing was reminiscent of Noorjehan but she soon got over that to evolve her own distinguished style. With her search for perfection she corrected her Urdu by hiring a tutor!
Her phenomenal success made Lata the most powerful woman in the Film Industry. She waged battle with Mohd. Rafi in the 1960s and stopped singing with him over the issue of royalty to playback artistes. She refused to sing for S.D. Burman from 1957 - 62 and such was her clout that she had her way and they came back to her.
Though Lata sang under the baton of all the top composers barring O.P. Nayyar and with all the top playback artistes of the day, special mention must be made of her work for C. Ramchandra who made her sound her sweetest and Madan Mohan who challenged her voice like no other music director. The 1960s and 70s saw Lata go from strength to strength even as there were accusations of her monopolizing the field.
From the 80s Lata cut down on her workload to concentrate on her shows abroad. Lata Mangeshkar sings infrequently now but even today the songs of some of the biggest hits of today Dil To Paagal Hai (1997), Maachis (1997), Hum Aapke Hain Kaun (1994) and Dil Se (1998) are sung by her. From Nargis to Kajol she's sung for them all. Lata Mangeshkar is in fact that rare artist who has realized her search for excellence.
A Phalke Award winner for her contribution to Indian Cinema, the latest jewel in Lata's crown is having India's highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna conferred on her.

Tuesday, September 19, 2006

Amitabh Bachchan



Amitabh Bachchan BiographyAmitabh Bachchan -- the ‘Shahenshah’ of Bollywood was born to well-known poet Harivansh Rai Bachchan and Teji Bachchan in Allahabad on October 11, 1942.
Amitabh went to Sherwood College, a boarding school in Nainital, and then to Kirori Mal College in Delhi University where he earned a double MA.
The elder son of Harivansh Rai Bachchan was a former stage actor, radio announcer and freight company executive in Shaw Wallace in Calcutta, before coming to the land of dreams, Bombay (now Mumbai). He had to struggle a lot in Bollywood because of his unconventional looks and his height. At 6’3”, he was considered far too tall by the filmmakers. Surprisingly, despite having a rich baritone voice, Bachchan failed in an audition at the All India Radio!
Ultimately, it was K A Abbas who gave Amitabh his first break in ‘Saat Hindustani’ (1969). But the film failed miserably, with Bachchan going almost unnoticed.
Amitabh played the lead role, for the first time in his career, in ‘Pyar Ki Kahani’ (1971), directed by Ravikant Nagaich.
It was on the sets of B R Ishara’s ‘Ek Nazar’ (1972) that Amitabh and Jaya Bhaduri realized that they were in love with each other. They married soon after.
Though Amitabh got an award for the best supporting actor for ‘Anand’ (1972), he was eclipsed by a stellar performance from Rajesh Khanna.
It was his 13th film 'Zanjeer’, directed by Prakash Mehra, which catapulted Amitabh to fame. In the film, he played a strict police officer. The role, which fetched him the title ‘The Angry Young Man’, came to him by default. A host of actors like Dharmendra, Dev Anand and Raj Kumar refused to do the role on account of some apprehension.
Then began a remarkable journey to fame and success. In no time the Indian film industry was declared a ‘One Man Industry’, and Bachchan its undisputed king.
Amitabh had his ‘sweet revenge’ against Rajesh Khanna by outshining him in ‘Namak Haraam’ (1974). The film secured him another award for Best Supporting Actor.
The year 1975 saw the release of Amitabh’s two biggest hits till date. Ramesh Sippy’s ‘Sholay’ and Yash Chopra’s ‘Deewaar’. Amitabh got his first Best Actor Award for Manmohan Desai’s ‘Amar Akbar Anthony’ (1977), next year for ‘Don’ and then for ‘Hum’ (1991).
He also bagged the National Award for Best Actor for ‘Agneepath’, which was made by the late Mukul Anand.
Amitabh worked with a host of directors in the 70s and the 80s ranging from Prakash Mehra to Yash Chopra and from Hrishikesh Mukherjee to Manmohan Desai.
After ‘Zanjeer’ Amitabh again joined hands with Prakash Mehra to give hits like ‘Hera Pheri’ (1975), ‘Muqaddar Ka Siqander’ (1979), ‘Lawaaris’ (1981), ‘Namak Halaal’ (1982) and ‘Sharaabi’ (1984).
Yash Chopra exploited the romantic side of Bachchan to the hilt in ‘Kabhi Kabhie’ (1976) and ‘Silsila’ (1981). Bachchan also did the ‘angry’ roles with Yash Chopra in ‘Trishul’ (1978) and ‘Kaala Patthar’ (1979).
Bachchan essayed a fantastic range of ‘off-beat’ roles under the direction of veteran Hrishikesh Mukherjee. Apart from ‘Anand’ and ‘Namak Haraam’, he gave standout performances in ‘Abhimaan’ (1973) ‘Mili’ (1975), ‘Chupke Chupke’ (1975), ‘Jurmana’ (1979) and ‘Bemisaal’ (1982).
With the late Manmohan Desai, the director with the Midas touch, Amitabh did nine films, which included blockbusters like ‘Amar Akbar Anthony’, ‘Suhaag’ (1979) and ‘Coolie’ (1983).
The adulation for Amitabh became clear when he was gravely injured during the filming of ‘Coolie’ in 1983. While he was battling for life in the hospital, the whole nation offered prayers at temples and mosques for his recovery. His other hits with ‘Man’ were ‘Parvarish’ (1977), ‘Naseeb’ (1981), ‘Desh Premee’ (1982) and ‘Mard’ (1985).
Amitabh’s sizzling on-screen chemistry with Rekha worked wonders at the box office. No wonder, the delectable duo was considered one of the most successful Bollywood pairs. They worked together for the first time in Dulal Guha’s ‘Do Anjaane’ (1976).
Amitabh matched the acting skills of another great actor in Ramesh Sippy’s ‘Shakti’ (1982). The son of a strict police officer (Dilip Kumar), he takes to the life of high crime and smuggling. It was a big challenge for Amitabh the actor, and he came out with flying colors.
In the wake of the assassination of Indira Gandhi in 1984, on the advice of his close friend Rajiv Gandhi, he contested the general elections for the first time from his hometown Allahabad. His electoral debut proved the Waterloo of stalwart H N Bahuguna.
His stint in politics, however, proved short-loved. As ill luck would have it, Amitabh got embroiled in some scandals. Having realized that politics was not his cup of tea, Amitabh resigned his seat in Parliament, vowing never to dabble in politics again.
In 1988 came Tinu Anand’s ‘Shahenshah’. It blazed a new trail, with Amitabh becoming the first major film star to take his film’s distribution rights for Mumbai in lieu of his salary.
The post-‘Shahenshah’ period marked a lull in the career of Amitabh. A host of mediocre films like ‘Ganga Jamuna Saraswati’, ‘Toofan’, ‘Jaadugar’ littered this phase of Bachchan’s career.
But then, the Big B bounced back – in brilliant fashion-- when the industry started to write him off. The comeback film was ‘Hum’ (1991) which was a smashing hit, thanks to Big B’s stellar performance.
A few years later, Amitabh started his own production company, the Amitabh Bachchan Corporation Limited (ABCL). ABCL ventured into film distribution with Mani Ratnam’s ‘Bombay’. It also was the principal sponsor of the Miss Universe Contest, held in Bangalore in 1996.
Unfortunately, ABCL fell on evil days, buried neck deep in debt. The company’s cup of woe ran over when his films flopped miserably at the box-office. And he was again ‘written off’ by the industry.
This time, too, Bachchan bounced back in style. Only, it was his performance on the small screen that revived the Bachchan magic. The host of ‘Kaun Banega Crorepati’ once again rode the roller coaster of fame. A mellowed Bachchan found himself firmly ‘locked’ in the hearts of millions of his adoring fans. The show represented a paradigm shift in the history of Indian television. It is still luxuriating in the lap of success.
Then came the international accolades. Amitabh was chosen Superstar of the Millennium, easing out giants like Sir Lawrence Olivier and Charlie Chaplin on a BBC online poll. National recognition followed soon. On January 26, 2001 he was awarded the Padma Bhushan for his outstanding contributions to Indian Cinema.
Amitabh is a relieved man now, having paid off all his debts. What is more, he is once again a force to reckon with in the Indian film industry and has some very interesting films coming up.
Undoubtedly, Amitabh is still the Shahenshah of the Indian film industry. The Big B is an icon who has survived three decades of competition, even trends. And emerged a winner. TOP

Mahatma Gandhi


BIOGRAPHY OF MAHATMA GANDHI : Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on October 2, 1869 in Porbandar, India. He became one of the most respected spiritual and political leaders of the 1900's. GandhiJI helped free the Indian people from British rule through nonviolent resistance, and is honored by Indians as the father of the Indian Nation.
The Indian people called Gandhiji 'Mahatma', meaning Great Soul. At the age of 13 Gandhi married Kasturba, a girl the same age. Their parents arranged the marriage. The Gandhis had four children. Gandhi studied law in London and returned to India in 1891 to practice. In 1893 he took on a one-year contract to do legal work in South Africa.
At the time the British controlled South Africa. When he attempted to claim his rights as a British subject he was abused, and soon saw that all Indians suffered similar treatment. Gandhi stayed in South Africa for 21 years working to secure rights for Indian people.
He developed a method of action based upon the principles of courage, nonviolence and truth called Satyagraha. He believed that the way people behave is more important than what they achieve. Satyagraha promoted nonviolence and civil disobedience as the most appropriate methods for obtaining political and social goals. In 1915 Gandhi returned to India. Within 15 years he became the leader of the Indian nationalist movement.
Using the principles of Satyagraha he led the campaign for Indian independence from Britain. Gandhi was arrested many times by the British for his activities in South Africa and India. He believed it was honorable to go to jail for a just cause. Altogether he spent seven years in prison for his political activities.
More than once Gandhi used fasting to impress upon others the need to be nonviolent. India was granted independence in 1947, and partitioned into India and Pakistan. Rioting between Hindus and Muslims followed. Gandhi had been an advocate for a united India where Hindus and Muslims lived together in peace.
On January 13, 1948, at the age of 78, he began a fast with the purpose of stopping the bloodshed. After 5 days the opposing leaders pledged to stop the fighting and Gandhi broke his fast. Twelve days later a Hindu fanatic, Nathuram Godse who opposed his program of tolerance for all creeds and religion assassinated him.

Rabindranath Tagore


Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) was the youngest son of Debendranath Tagore, a leader of the Brahmo Samaj, which was a new religious sect in nineteenth-century Bengal and which attempted a revival of the ultimate monistic basis of Hinduism as laid down in the Upanishads. He was educated at home; and although at seventeen he was sent to England for formal schooling, he did not finish his studies there. In his mature years, in addition to his many-sided literary activities, he managed the family estates, a project which brought him into close touch with common humanity and increased his interest in social reforms. He also started an experimental school at Shantiniketan where he tried his Upanishadic ideals of education. From time to time he participated in the Indian nationalist movement, though in his own non-sentimental and visionary way; and Gandhi, the political father of modern India, was his devoted friend. Tagore was knighted by the ruling British Government in 1915, but within a few years he resigned the honour as a protest against British policies in India.
Tagore had early success as a writer in his native Bengal. With his translations of some of his poems he became rapidly known in the West. In fact his fame attained a luminous height, taking him across continents on lecture tours and tours of friendship. For the world he became the voice of India's spiritual heritage; and for India, especially for Bengal, he became a great living institution.
Although Tagore wrote successfully in all literary genres, he was first of all a poet. Among his fifty and odd volumes of poetry are Manasi (1890) [The Ideal One], Sonar Tari (1894) [The Golden Boat], Gitanjali (1910) [Song Offerings], Gitimalya (1914) [Wreath of Songs], and Balaka (1916) [The Flight of Cranes]. The English renderings of his poetry, which include The Gardener (1913), Fruit-Gathering (1916), and The Fugitive (1921), do not generally correspond to particular volumes in the original Bengali; and in spite of its title, Gitanjali: Song Offerings (1912), the most acclaimed of them, contains poems from other works besides its namesake. Tagore's major plays are Raja (1910) [The King of the Dark Chamber], Dakghar (1912) [The Post Office], Achalayatan (1912) [The Immovable], Muktadhara (1922) [The Waterfall], and Raktakaravi (1926) [Red Oleanders]. He is the author of several volumes of short stories and a number of novels, among them Gora (1910), Ghare-Baire (1916) [The Home and the World], and Yogayog (1929) [Crosscurrents]. Besides these, he wrote musical dramas, dance dramas, essays of all types, travel diaries, and two autobiographies, one in his middle years and the other shortly before his death in 1941. Tagore also left numerous drawings and paintings, and songs for which he wrote the music himself.
From Nobel Lectures, Literature 1901-1967, Editor Horst Frenz, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1969
This autobiography/biography was first published in the book series Les Prix Nobel. It was later edited and republished in Nobel Lectures. To cite this document, always state the source as shown above.

Rabindranath Tagore died on August 7, 1941.

Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar

Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, chiefly responsible for drafting of The Constitution of India and a champion of human rights was born on the 14th April, 1891. After graduating from Elfinstone College, Bombay in 1912, he joined Columbia University, USA where he was awarded Ph.D. Later he joined the London School of Economics & obtained a degree of D.Sc. ( Economics) & was called to the Bar from Gray's Inn.
On his return to India in 1923, he founded 'Bahishkrit Hitkarini Sabha' with the main objective of spreading education & improving the economic conditions of the depressed classes. With the slogan of 'Educate-Agitate-Organize', the social movement led by Dr. Ambedkar aimed at Annihilation of Caste & the Reconstruction of Indian Society on the basis of equality of human beings.
In 1927, he led the march at Mahad, Maharashtra to establish the rights of the untouchables to taste water from the Public Chawdar Lake', traditionally prohibited to them. This marked the beginning of anti-caste & anti-priest movement. The temple entry movement launched by Dr. Ambedkar in 1930 at the Kalaram Temple, Nashik, Maharashtra is another landmark in the struggle for human rights & political justice. Dr. Ambedkar held the view that "Only political power cannot be a panacea for the ills of the depressed classes. Their salvation lies in their social elevation". As a Member of the Viceroy's Executive Council from July 1942 he was instrumental in bringing about several legislative measures to protect the rights of labourers & workers.

Indira Gandhi


Indira Gandhi (1917-1984) was the only child of Kamla and Jawaharlal Nehru. She spent part of her childhood in Allahabad, where the Nehrus had their family residence, and part in Switzerland, where her mother Kamla convalesced from her periodic illnesses. She received her college education at Somerville College, Oxford. A famous photograph from her childhood shows her sitting by the bedside of Mahatma Gandhi, as he recovered from one of his fasts; and though she was not actively involved in the freedom struggle, she came to know the entire Indian political leadership. After India's attainment of independence, and the ascendancy of Jawaharlal Nehru, now a widower, to the office of the Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi managed the official residence of her father, and accompanied him on his numerous foreign trips. She had been married in 1942 to Feroze Gandhi, who rose to some eminence as a parliamentarian and politician of integrity but found himself disliked by his more famous father-in-law, but Feroze died in 1960 before he could consolidate his own political forces.
Mrs. Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India, 1966-77 and 1980-84. She was assassinated in 1984. In 1964, the year of her father's death, Indira Gandhi was for the first time elected to Parliament, and she was Minister of Information and Broadcasting in the government of Lal Bahadur Shastri, who died unexpectedly of a heart attack less than two years after assuming office. The numerous contenders for the position of the Prime Ministership, unable to agree among themselves, picked Indira Gandhi as a compromise candidate, and each thought that she would be easily manipulable. But Indira Gandhi showed extraordinary political skills and tenacity and elbowed the Congress dons -- Kamaraj, Morarji Desai, and others -- out of power. She held the office of the Prime Minister from 1966 to 1977. She was riding the crest of popularity after India's triumph in the war of 1971 against Pakistan, and the explosion of a nuclear device in 1974 helped to enhance her reputation among middle-class Indians as a tough and shrewd political leader. However, by 1973, Delhi and north India were rocked by demonstrations angry at high inflation, the poor state of the economy, rampant corruption, and the poor standards of living. In June 1975, the High Court of Allahabad found her guilty of using illegal practices during the last election campaign, and ordered her to vacate her seat. There were demands for her resignation.
Mrs. Gandhi's response was to declare a state of emergency, under which her political foes were imprisoned, constitutional rights abrogated, and the press placed under strict censorship. Meanwhile, the eldest of her two sons, Sanjay Gandhi, started to run the country as though it were his personal fiefdom, and earned the fierce hatred of many whom his policies had victimized. He ordered the removal of slum dwellings, and in an attempt to curb India's growing population, initiated a highly resented program of forced sterilization. In early 1977, confident that she had debilitated her opposition, Mrs. Gandhi called for fresh elections, and found herself trounced by a newly formed coalition of several political parties. Her Congress party lost badly at the polls. Many declared that she was a spent force; but, three years later, she was to return as Prime Minister of India. The same year, however, her son Sanjay was killed in an airplane crash.
In the second, post-Emergency, period of her Prime Ministership, Indira Gandhi was preoccupied by efforts to resolve the political problems in the state of Punjab. In her attempt to crush the secessionist movement of Sikh militants, led by Jarnail Singh Bindranwale, she ordered an assault upon the holiest Sikh shrine in Amritsar, called the "Golden Temple". It is here that Bindranwale and his armed supporters had holed up, and it is from the Golden Temple that they waged their campaign of terrorism not merely against the Government, but against moderate Sikhs and Hindus. "Operation Bluestar", waged in June 1984, led to the death of Bindranwale, and the Golden Temple was stripped clean of Sikh terrorists; however, the Golden Temple was damaged, and Mrs. Gandhi earned the undying hatred of Sikhs who bitterly resented the desacralization of their sacred space. In November of the same year, Mrs. Gandhi was assassinated, at her residence, by two of her own Sikh bodyguards, who claimed to be avenging the insult heaped upon the Sikh nation.
Mrs. Gandhi acquired a formidable international reputation as a "statesman", and there is no doubt that she was extraordinarily skilled in politics. She was prone, like many other politicians, to thrive on slogans, and one -- Garibi Hatao, "Remove Poverty" -- became the rallying cry for one of her election campaigns. She had an authoritarian streak, and though a cultured woman, rarely tolerated dissent; and she did, in many respects, irreparable harm to Indian democracy. Apart from her infamous imposition of the internal emergency, the use of the army to resolve internal disputes greatly increased in her time; and she encouraged a culture of sycophancy and nepotism. At her death, her older son, Rajiv Gandhi, was sworn in as head of the Congress party and Prime Minister.

Mother Teresa


Mother Teresa was born Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu in Skopje*, Macedonia, on August 27, 1910. Her family was of Albanian descent. At the age of twelve, she felt strongly the call of God. She knew she had to be a missionary to spread the love of Christ. At the age of eighteen she left her parental home in Skopje and joined the Sisters of Loreto, an Irish community of nuns with missions in India. After a few months' training in Dublin she was sent to India, where on May 24, 1931, she took her initial vows as a nun. From 1931 to 1948 Mother Teresa taught at St. Mary's High School in Calcutta, but the suffering and poverty she glimpsed outside the convent walls made such a deep impression on her that in 1948 she received permission from her superiors to leave the convent school and devote herself to working among the poorest of the poor in the slums of Calcutta. Although she had no funds, she depended on Divine Providence, and started an open-air school for slum children. Soon she was joined by voluntary helpers, and financial support was also forthcoming. This made it possible for her to extend the scope of her work.
On October 7, 1950, Mother Teresa received permission from the Holy See to start her own order, "The Missionaries of Charity", whose primary task was to love and care for those persons nobody was prepared to look after. In 1965 the Society became an International Religious Family by a decree of Pope Paul VI.
Today the order comprises Active and Contemplative branches of Sisters and Brothers in many countries. In 1963 both the Contemplative branch of the Sisters and the Active branch of the Brothers was founded. In 1979 the Contemplative branch of the Brothers was added, and in 1984 the Priest branch was established.
The Society of Missionaries has spread all over the world, including the former Soviet Union and Eastern European countries. They provide effective help to the poorest of the poor in a number of countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, and they undertake relief work in the wake of natural catastrophes such as floods, epidemics, and famine, and for refugees. The order also has houses in North America, Europe and Australia, where they take care of the shut-ins, alcoholics, homeless, and AIDS sufferers.
The Missionaries of Charity throughout the world are aided and assisted by Co-Workers who became an official International Association on March 29, 1969. By the 1990s there were over one million Co-Workers in more than 40 countries. Along with the Co-Workers, the lay Missionaries of Charity try to follow Mother Teresa's spirit and charism in their families.
Mother Teresa's work has been recognised and acclaimed throughout the world and she has received a number of awards and distinctions, including the Pope John XXIII Peace Prize (1971) and the Nehru Prize for her promotion of international peace and understanding (1972). She also received the Balzan Prize (1979) and the Templeton and Magsaysay awards.

Subhash Chandra Bose


Subhash Chandra Bose, (Bangla: ????? ?????? ??? Shubhash Chôndro Boshu) (January 23, 1897 – August 18, 1945?note), also known as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian Independence Movement against the British Raj. He is immortalised in Indian History for having formed the Azad Hind Government in exile, and regrouping and leading the Indian National Army to battle against the allies in Imphal and Burma during the World War II. It is widely regarded that the actions of his nationalist army, and the revolts that it inspired in the British Indian Armed Forces after the war were one of the main driving forces behind the British decision to relinquish the Raj.[1][2]
Bose was elected president of the Indian National Congress for two consecutive terms. However, he had to resign from the post in the face of a motion of no-confidence, stemming from ideological conflicts with Mahatma Gandhi. Bose felt that Mahatma Gandhi's tactics of non-violence would never be sufficient to secure India's independence, and advocated violent resistance. He established a separate political party, the All India Forward Bloc and continued to call for the full and immediate independence of India from British rule. His stance did not change with the outbreak of War, which he saw as an opportunity to take advantage of British weakness.
He was imprisoned by the British authorities 11 times. At the outset of World War II, in a daring act of escape from the eyes of the British, he fled from India, and reached Germany by a lengthy and dangerous route. He sought an alliance with the Axis powers with the aim of attacking the British in India from the Northwest. When this plan was foiled by the Nazi invasion of the USSR, he headed for Japan and helped to organise— and later lead— the Indian National Army, put together from Indian prisoners-of-war and plantation workers from Singapore and other parts of Southeast Asia, against British forces during the Second World War. His political views and the alliances he made with Nazi and other militarist regimes opposed to the British Empire have been the cause of arguments among historians and politicians, with some accusing him of Fascism and of Quislingist actions. He is believed to have died on 18 August 1945 in a plane crash over Taiwan, however, contradicting evidence exists regarding his death in the accident.